31 December 2015

On Hate

I originally wrote this piece in 2014 for the New York Times, but they didn't pick it up. I tried unsuccessfully to get it printed somewhere else to no avail, so I'm finally putting it up here.

Mark Lane started to get threats a few days after he took in the family. At first, they targeted his San Diego restaurant, writing reviews online, saying his food poisoned them. “Mark Lane needs a serious beating in front of his customers,” declared a Facebook user.

Lane had already stoked the ire of hate groups by starting a Facebook page calling for a boycott of Murrieta, California, a town that rocketed to the international stage in 2014 after protestors turned away immigrant children. He further inflamed it by taking in a family of Guatemalan refugees waiting for an immigration hearing. They uncovered his identity and put photos of his wife and sons on the internet, threatening to show up and kill him.

Mudshark,” a voice on the phone hissed. “Go back to Mexico,” whispered another.

Lane, who is white with an olive-skinned, dark-haired wife from Mexico, was called a race traitor, and worse. “Happy white guy who helps brown people?” read a typical email. “How did a decent Southerner like you get so perverted?” People started to show up at his restaurant to lurk outside and snap photos of customers.

While the groups still threatening Lane come from the fringe, their rhetoric is straight out of the mainstream. The terminology used to separate and marginalize people based on country of origin or skin color is not just the work of a few lone-wolf racists – it is the basis upon which the entire concept of border security has been built.

Southern California is peppered with dozens with gun shops. You can walk in, get a quick lesson on the right guns and ammunition for you, and then find bulletin boards – online or off – with information about your pick of militia groups. Many of those have connections to the Minutemen or other, more fringe groups. All of them talk about patriotism and the necessity of guarding the border. Many are filled with code words and dog-whistle language about illegals, gangbangers, thugs, and disease-carrying foreigners.

This is no accident. "California has historically been a cauldron of racial inequity in the United States,” said Kelly Lytle Hernandez, an author and border historian at the University of California, Los Angeles. “We are much more familiar with the narrative of the South in particular, but California has long been at the center of immigrant exclusion and border security, and those have always circulated around race and exclusion.”

The American Dream did not start out as a melting pot, she said. “Border security” as it is known today has been discussed since the beginning of the United States, but at first, it began as a discussion over who was white. “The general physical political ideal of the 19thcentury saw the United States as a massive body of land that was supposed to be a white settler society,” said Hernandez.

Discussion about border security in the latter half of the 19th century actually began because of Chinese immigrants, who came to California to do agricultural work and who became so populous they were accused of stealing agribusiness jobs. In 1862, the first immigration law, known colloquially as the “Anti-Coolie Act,” prohibited prostitutes, alcoholics, epileptics, criminals, and Asians from entering the United States.

Each new wave of migration was accompanied by fresh xenophobia – more so if the immigrants did not fit that white settler ideal. In the early 1900s, black American families, fed up with the Jim Crow, lynchings, and other legacies of the slave trade, began to move west. By the 1920s, more than a million African-Americans had moved out of the South. European and Russian Jews also arrived en masse at around the same time to escape increasing violence and discrimination in their home countries.

In 1924, at the behest of groups like the Ku Klux Klan, the United States passed the National Origins Act, which not only set a hard limit for foreign immigration in an attempt to preserve the ideal of American homogeneity, once again excluding Asians completely, but also created the Border Patrol to enforce it. As these riders were stationed along the U.S.-Mexico border, over time their focus narrowed to almost exclusively Mexican immigrants, deepening racial divides and inequalities along the border. During the Great Depression, nearly half a million Mexicans were rounded up and “repatriated,” some voluntarily, most forcibly.

Despite increasing tensions, migration to California continued, following market forces. Many people ended up in Los Angeles, thanks to the economic pull of its industrial centers and ports, which offered a chance at the middle-class dream to people who until then had not been allowed to have that opportunity. A second Great Migration of black Americans began in the 1940s, and Mexican agricultural and industrial workers found themselves in high demand there. The dream of white homogeneity, which never really existed to begin with, was overturned, and people started to leave. White flight had begun.

Whole swaths of counties close to Los Angeles catered to white flight, with realtors enacting “gentlemen's agreements” and “covenants” to not sell to any black families – or Jewish, or Mexican, or any families that threatened the neighborhood's whiteness. Shreds of these covenants still remain, like the hotly contested cross on a La Jolla hilltop, originally erected as a sign that the tony seaside neighborhood was a Christian one. Redlining, or housing discrimination, began in earnest in suburbs all over the region.

This all provided a fertile ground for neo-Nazi ideology to flourish after the end of the Second World War, aided and abetted by real estate agents who understood the wink and the smile they needed to keep their business selling tracts of southern California land as a white paradise. Wesley Swift, a Methodist preacher, started his own church, eventually called the Christian Identity movement or Church of Jesus Christ-Christian, which taught an extreme interpretation of Scripture that concluded that white people were the true children of Adam and Eve.

One of Swift's acolytes eventually created the Aryan Nations separatist group in the 1970s. By then, the framework that had allowed the creation of neo-Nazi groups to begin with was firmly in place in southern California. These new generations, spurred by the focus on immigration and protecting White America, now had God on their side, as well.
In the 1970s, the first militia groups made their way to the border.

The Civil Rights Movement triggered the uptick in white supremacy that began in the early 1970s, and while 9/11 created a surge of xenophobia from the South all the way to the tip of Alaska, it was sustained and fed by the wave of Iraqi immigrants that arrived in the United States soon afterward. During each wave, nativists and white supremacists went out to the US-Mexico border, and each quickly adopted the language of border security and anti-terrorism measures to justify their methods.

In the post-WW2 era, David Duke's 1977 'Klan Border Watch' was the watershed moment linking U.S. white supremacist politics to vigilante border patrols, although it was largely a media stunt,” noted Spencer Sunshine, a fellow at Political Research Associates, a Massachusetts think tank devoted to studying the extreme right wing. “The Ku Klux Klan has a long history of organizing in southern California, going back to at least the 1920s.”

More hate groups, some of which called themselves militias or vigilantes and seemed to see themselves as the nation's protectors, sprang up in California's segregated, yet increasingly diverse environment. Today, the state has nearly 80 organizations that are classified as “hate groups,” far more than any other state, and most of them are along the border. According to Mark Potok of the Southern Poverty Law Center, these follow a specific and trackable pattern.

Hate crimes rise quite dramatically when neighborhoods begin to reach a tipping point racially,” Potok said.
Where that tipping point begins is up for debate. Some scholars say “white flight” begins when a formerly white neighborhood becomes around 25 percent non-white. Others say just one family of color moving in can spark hatred and violence.

What sociologists do agree on, however, is that how much money or education people do or do not have do not create the conditions that breed white flight, hate groups, or hate crimes. The overwhelming reasons are twofold: demographic change that threatens the homogeneity of the dominant group, and the history of a particular area.
Membership in white supremacist groups appears to be dwindling now for the first time since the late 2000s, the end result of different groups settling in and multicultural cities becoming the rule rather than the exception.

But they're still loud – voices of hate groups are amplified and organized by the Internet, Potok said, although he does not believe that the internet aids in recruiting people into white supremacist groups or militias.

I think by and large people are not recruited into hate groups through a computer screen. Real recruitment into groups of any kind happen face to face, even in the age of social media,” Potok said, although there is evidence that existing beliefs are strengthened by the echo-chamber effect of websites such as the very active Stormfront.org.

After Mark Lane was unmasked as the moderator of the Boycott Marrieta Facebook page and nativist groups discovered he was aiding a Central American family, he and his business received threats and poor reviews. But Lane also received a tremendous outpouring of goodwill and new business from people who had not heard about what he was doing until hate groups blasted him, including people who visited his restaurant to shake his hand and tell him that his altruism and tolerance had changed their opposition to allowing refugees into the country.

Hate groups, at least the ones based on physical differences, will continue to dwindle as diversity becomes more mainstream, but until then, crimes based on hatred or fear of “the other” will continue as long as it remains a part of everyday American discourse. 

In order to defuse the language of hate, California, along with every other state in the US, has to acknowledge and distance itself from its history of government-approved white supremacy.

Many have lamented that the language of hate has infiltrated contemporary border politics, but the truth is that it has been there all along.  


  1. Nice work Brooke. Glad that you chose to publish it here.

  2. Giới thiệu chung cu an binh city cổ nhuế
    Giới thiệu an binh city cổ nhuế
    Giới thiệu phong thủy cổ nhuế
    Giới thiệu vị trí an bình city cổ nhuế
    Giới thiệu mặt bằng an bình city cổ nhuế
    Giới thiệu tiến độ an bình city cổ nhuế
    Giới thiệu tin tức an bình city cổ nhuế
    Giới thiệu tiện ích an bình city cổ nhuế
    Mở bán chung cư golden palm hà đông
    Mở bán chung cư the golden palm hà đông
    Mở bán chung cư the golden palm hà đông
    Mở bán vị trí the golden palm hà đông
    Giới thiệu ích the golden palm cổ nhuế
    Dự án tin tức the golden palm

  3. Mở bán an binh city geleximco hà đông
    Mở bán an binh city geleximco hà đông
    Giới thiệu an binh city cổ
    Giới thiệu chung cư an bình city cổ
    Giới thiệu an bình city geleximco cổ nhuế
    Giới thiệu an bình city geleximco cổ nhuế
    Giới thiệu an bình city geleximco cổ nhuế
    Giới thiệu an bình city geleximo cổ nhuế
    Giới thiệu an bình city geleximco cổ nhuế
    Giới thiệu an bình city geleximco cổ nhuế
    Giới thiệu an bình city geleximco cổ nhuế
    Giới thiệu an bình city geleximco cổ nhuế

    Chủ đầu tư chung cu brg park residence phạm văn đồng
    Chủ đầu tư gelexia riverside hoàng mai phạm văn đồng
    Chủ đầu tư dự án gelexia riverside tam trinh phạm văn đồng
    Chủ đầu tư dự án gelexia riverside hoàng mai phạm văn đồng

    Mở bán chung cu royal park le van thiem hà đông
    Mở bán dự án royal park hà đông
    Ra mắt dự án five star resident cầu giấy hà nội
    Ra mắt chung cu palm garden le van luong
    Mở bán chung cu gemek premium hà đông
    Mở bán dự án hồng hà 89 thinh liệt hà đông
    Mở bán biệt thự 82 nguyễn tuân hà đông
    Mở bán biệt thự the green daisy lê trọng tấn hà đông
    Mở bán flc quang trung hà đông hà đông

    Mở bán dự án the golden palm hà đông
    Mở bán dự án the golden palm hà đông
    Mở bán the golden palm lê văn lương hà đông
    Mở bán chung cư rivera park vũ trọng phụng hà đông

  4. Goa Female Escorts

    Goa Call Girls

    Hiya !!! ... I am Sonam Raees A Hot, adorable and hot young lady, as individuals depict me in their fantasies. Conceived and raised in an exceptionally pleasant family where you wont discover individuals other than specialists and architects from a north town of India. I have dependably been an extremely unusual in all viewpoints where my everything relatives have been exceptionally bashful and sensible individuals.

  5. I enjoyed this piece. Thank you. You are a talented writer. I too love to do research. I wish I could work for snopes too. I agree with Christopher Donaghue, must be a huge downer tonwrite this and have comments that aren't even pertinent. Good luck in all!

  6. Need to have a great time in Gurgaon? We give best escort benefits in all parts of Gurgaon

  7. In the event that you remain in Goa or have arrived here for some business trip or simply need to have some good times in this 'Mayanagri', hot friends are sitting tight for you to make your night upbeat just at Daizy.



  8. Our services are totally client driven and we solidly put stock in consumer loyalty. With a major an appealing customer base, the call girls gave by Pooja give in call benefits in a truly acceptable way.
    call girls in gurugram
    gurugram escorts
    escorts in gurugram
    gurugram call girls

    russian escorts in gurugram
    foreigner escorts in gurugram

  9. http://www.rentatoy.in

    CALL GIRLS SERVICES IN Bangalore Bangalore Call Girl Services

    Modern Bangalore CALL GIRLS
    Independent CALL GIRL Services in Bangalore
    Mastering on Strip Dance
    Professional Bangalore Girlfriend Experience
    Love & Sex Pleasure
    Sex Services for fun

  10. This is an article with great content and is extremely useful for all of us. Thank you.




  11. I like the post format as you create user engagement in the complete article. It seems round up of all published posts. Thanks for gauging the informative posts.

  12. kandungan dengan cepat dan akurat terbukti ampuh untuk melunturkan janin kehamilan muda 1 minggu hingga 1 , 2 , 3 dan 4 bulan

  13. Keep up the great work...some of us didn't listen in the past, we were blinded by our own issues, and did not fully understand. Some of us only reach an epiphany after we have an ‘Omelas’ moment.

    May health and good fortune be with you always.

  14. I like the post format as you create user engagement in the complete article. It seems round up of all published posts.


  15. If you are looking for a hassle free escort service in India, then look no further other than us.

    independent escorts in bangalore

    bangalore escorts

    independent escorts in chennai

    chennai escorts

  16. We have built up Delusion's legacy over an entire lifestyle of obligation and essentialness. Our Girl goes with have contributed an incomprehensible procedure lovely to us serving Delhi and the amazing noteworthy of rich escorts for more than 10 years.
    Independent Escorts in Delhi

  17. تنظيف منزلك: نصيحة جد فعالة للغاية
    شركة تنظيف فى ينبع

    هل تريد منزلاً نظيفًا ومرتبًا دائمًا؟ شركات تنظيف منازل فى ينبع مع حيلًا لجدة ، سيكون لديك دائمًا منزل لا تشوبه شائبة مع القليل من الجهد.
    سباك بينبع

    ذات مرة تعلمت أن تكون ربة منزل أنبوب اختبار عندما كنت طفلا. شركة تنظيف كنب بينبع علمت الجدات كيفية تنظيف أمهاتنا في سن المدرسة. لقد تغيرت الأمور اليوم ويبدو أن أسرار تنظيف المنزل قد فقدت. شركة تنظيف سجاد بينبع ليس تماما ، على الرغم! لا تزال أسرار الجدات لتنظيف المنزل صالحة: لهذا السبب شركة تنظيف خزانات بينبع سنرى نصيحة مفيدة لتنظيف المنزل اليوم.
    معلم المنيوم شاطر

  18. كيفية القيام بتنظيف المنزل: 15 نصيحة مفيدة

    سيساعدك تنظيف منزلك عاملات تنظيف بالساعه الكويت باتباع هذه النصائح البسيطة في الحفاظ عليه مرتبًا ، دون الحاجة إلى قضاء أيام كاملة مكافحة حشرات العدان في التنظيف. باتباع بعض الحيل الصغيرة ، من الممكن أن يكون لديك منزل نظيف مواقع اعلانات مجانية في الكويت حتى من خلال تخصيص وقت قليل جدًا. كيف تفعل تنظيف المنزل بسرعة؟ اتبع هذه النصائح البسيطة
    نقل عفش صباح الاحمد

    1) لتنظيف المطبخ بسرعة ، قم بعمل خليط من صودا الخبز والماء وضعه على السطح بأكمله خدمة غسيل سيارات ٢٤ ساعه . ثم أزيلي الخليط باستخدام إسفنجة مغموسة في الخل. في دقيقتين سيكون المطبخ نظيفًا ومزيلًا للشحم ومشرقًا.
    مظلات حدائق الكويت
    2) من خلال الجمع بين الماء وصودا الخبز تركيب السبوت لايت في الجبس والخل الأبيض تحصل على مزيل دهون قوي مفيد لتنظيف الأدوات الصحية أو لإزالة الشحوم من المطبخ.

  19. สมัครยูฟ่าเบท เว็บไซต์แทงบอลออนไลน์ ที่เปิดพนันบอลเยอะที่สุด ufabet1688x เปิดรับวางเดิมพันกีฬาทุกประเภท อาทิเช่น แทงบอลสเต็ป แทงบอลเดี่ยว หรือจะเป็นการพนันบอลล่วงหน้าการ พนันบอลสด แทงบอลสดออนไลน์

  20. tunggu apalagi? skuy lah join bandar togel online kingdomgrup

  21. Sand Blasting Machine In India
    Are you looking for shot Blasting machine for your industry,
    We are the leading manufacturer and provider of Shot Blasting Machine , Sand Blasting Machine, Abrasive materials equipment's related to Airo shot blasting industry like Spray gun , Thermal Spray gun etc

    Visit our website for more information
    Sand Blasting Machine

  22. Multi-gyms also offer a wide range of exercises, they are compact and space saving and they also offer quick and easy weight adjustment. Among its emerging middle-class is a wave of young men who see bodybuilding not only as a means to succeed financially, but as a source of identity. For many, the sport has become an all-encompassing way of life – one requiring a strict diet, rigorous training and significant financial backing.



  23. By the way, most of the time I do not comment on websites, but I’d like to say that this article really forced me to do so. I really like this nice post, Great Work, Keep it Up!
    VIP Service in Nehru Place
    Mumbakkam Nights
    Faye Reagan Nudes
    Night Services in South Delhi
    Alwarpet VIP Service
    Live Sex Chat
    Party Girls in Mumbai

  24. I really appreciate your excellent information, which is very well composed, and especially the comments posted are very good, I would definitely like to visit once again.
    Latest Nudes
    Chattarpur Sensual Service
    Hot Girls Anna Nagar
    Latest Indian Porn
    Hauz Khas Night Services
    Besant Nagar Girls
    Joseline Kelly Nudes
    Nights in Mumbai

  25. Free spins are exactly because the name implies, spins which might be} free of charge. These bonuses can encompass a combination of free spins and free cash. They are incessantly offered as much-appreciated bonus rewards or as a welcome bonus. It is sort of|is kind of} widespread that players win free spins while half in} on slot machines is in a position to} cause the machine to continue to spin without 카지노 additional charges. While casinos scrutinize players in each different space of the on line casino, poker players get more leeway because of|as a end result of} casinos don’t have as much cash at stake. That’s because of|as a end result of} players are betting their very own bucks, and the home gets a reduce no matter who wins.

  26. I'm happy to let you know that I truly love your article and needed to thank you for this extraordinary read !! I partake in every one of its little pieces. I have you bookmarked to look at the new stuff you post.

  27. I have flawless info. It is the thing this impressed me the most. This is a way to take a break from faxing this. Now here's something that my acquaintance sometimes expresses, "The apple doesn't fall far from the tree." Some of my best friends have Weight Loss Gummies. Is there such a Weight Loss Gummies available? I don't want to come off as small minded but that's the way things are. Another point which I've realized is that, in a number of cases, this is not necessarily wrong.



  28. This is very Amazing and Very Informative Article we get a lot of information from this article we really appreciate your teamwork work keep it up and keep posting such informative articles. VIP Girls Jaipur

  29. if you come to massage parlour in chennai then all your tiredness will be gone and your skin will be transformed to glow, because our hot massage girl therapists are fully experienced for give this service

  30. Come to our massage spa in hyderabad center and experience the beauty of your body, once take spa service from our hot massage girl therapists

  31. Our therapists are trained in various techniques to ensure a blissful experience.